1. Blender 3.6 Used Overview :
Documentation describing the features of Blender 3.6.
|What Is Blender 3.6 Used For
2. Blender 3D Modeling :
In Blender 3d modeling work, methods such as directly connecting points, lines, and planes, cutting, combining, dividing, and digging are used. It is used to make 3d models of artificial objects such as dice, desks, cars, and chairs, as well as straight and artificial models such as the sun, earth, and baseballs.
3ds Max users say modeling is more difficult than Max, but Once you get used to the keyboard shortcuts, you can work much more comfortably. It's intuitive because you can do most of the work with hotkeys. If you hover your mouse over each button, you can see the shortcut.
There are many ways to design blender curved surfaces. There is a multi-resolution and dynamic topology for sculpting as well as a Subdivision surface (SubD). If you want to create some sharp edges, you can use the edge crease function. It is also one of the DCC software packages with Pixar's OpenSubdiv technology along with Maya and Max.
Starting with Blender 2.63, it started supporting N-gons (polygons such as pentagons, hexagons, etc. over squares) under the name Bmesh.
Blender 3.6 also supports the NURBS surface tool. If you search for Blender NURBS on YouTube, there are people who use it on the product and graphics side. FYI, very few people use Nurbs or Subdi curved surfaces in architecture.
In the field of 3D modeling, it is a modern trend that Mesh-SubD is used rather than NURBS when large-scale work or complex surface modeling work is required. For reference, in the CAD field, NURBS is used for the final surface work, and for 3d character modeling or complex freeform surfaces, SubD is used for all NURBS steps. Maya is a representative program that supports NURBS in motion graphics.
Like Max or Maya, it has a variety of modifiers. As opposed to bottom-up in 3ds Max, new modifiers are applied top-down in Blender. While it's true that Blender modifiers outperform similar paid programs, there are one or two things that need improvement.
3. Blender Sculpting :
Blender Sculpting means ridicule in Korean. It is similar to the work of making a shape by carving marble or forming clay.
In the sculpting work, a soft three-dimensional model is pressed, deformed, patterned, and drawn to form a shape. It is widely used to make creatures such as animals and plants, natural objects such as rocks and terrain, and the human body. Blender's sculpting capabilities are powerful enough to create anything from people to animals to terrain to stone.
Until 2019, the sculpting function was evaluated as inferior to that of ZBrush, the industry leader, but throughout 2020, newly hired developer Pablo Dobarro added countless tools and features, making that a thing of the past.
Sculpting in blender is improving at a breakneck pace thanks to Pablo Dobarro. Now, when used in conjunction with Blender easy UI and convenient operation method, as well as the 3d Blender polygon modeling function, it is evaluated that the work is rather faster than ZBrush.
Blender is a better choice if you include armature work or render in the workflow. However, as of 2020, it is recommended to learn ZBrush to get a job at a studio that uses the sculpting function. As of the end of 2020, Pablo Dobarro is said to be tinkering with a performance at high poly sculpting, which is lacking compared to ZBrush. In 2021, feature improvements are happening at breakneck speed.
You can apply any texture you want to any brush, and you can choose the mapping method you like.
If you want to bake a normal map by making a clone of a low-poly, you can use the Decimate or Remesh function. If you just want to fill your model with quads, many cheap add-ons do the job for you. And while ZBrush provides a separate Retopology function, Blender uses a method of drawing topology by snapping points to the surface of a model when working with Retopology.
In terms of managing topology (the arrangement of polygons on a surface), most people use a feature called dynamic topology when dealing with polygon density while sculpting.
Blender dynamic topology function, similar to ZBrush Dynamic mesh, automatically divides the face into triangular polygons as the sculpting detail increases and the sculpting brush size decreases, so artists do not care about the polygon topology and only sculpt You can only focus on doing it. However, this is not the only method with advantages.
The dynamic topology lowers the brush detail value, and the performance load rises rapidly as the number of polygons increases. For this reason, it is better to use a method of sculpting by applying a modifier called Multi-resolution to the object after it has been shaped with only an appropriate polygon density so that it is not too dense.
The Multi-resolution modifier is used to add details such as scales and creases that require finer resolution than the actual polygons. The default value of this option is Relative Detail. In the case of this mode, the degree of detail of the dynamic topology is determined based on the current view point of view. all fly away This is something to be aware of when using it.
4. Blender Retopology :
Retopology in blender is the process of tidying up the arrangement of polygons on a mesh surface.
The arrangement of surface polygons of a 3d model made of mesh is called topology. By the way, what if a mesh object is created by sculpting or 3D scanning that looks good but has too many polygons or all polygons are triangles and covered with a messy topology?
Furthermore, what if you want to plant an armature here and make it move like a character, but the topology is messed up, and the surface folds and twists in strange places? It is at this point that retopology is necessary.
The name retopology is given because it is the operation of recreating the topology. The general retopology feature is not officially supported in Blender as of 2020. However, it is possible to perform retopology by combining the surface snap function and the Polybuild tool, and since it is not a function only for retopology, it is significantly inferior in functionality compared to Maya or Zbrush.
In the future, blender retopology functions will be added. Dedicated overlays, dedicated snaps, quad line creation, and relaxed brushes are planned.
In addition, Blender supports two types of remeshing. You can think of it as a function that automatically performs retopology.
First, the voxel remesh method converts objects into voxels. Even if meshes overlap within an object, they are converted into a single combined voxel mass.
There are fewer problems such as punctures that often occur with Dyntopo. It is good to use without worrying about overlapping polygons or detail density. It is mainly used for sculpting, but as the detail density increases, the processing time increases rapidly, the load increases and the edge becomes bumpy.
Second, the Quadriflow method organizes surfaces into quads. You can specify how many square polygons, whether one thousand or ten thousand, cover the surface. Since it is completely covered with only square polygons, there is an advantage to using the MultiRes function when sculpting.
However, since remeshing is done entirely through calculation, polygons determine the flow, as when manually organizing polygons, Functions such as making use of an angle at a specific corner or increasing the detail density only in the eyes or mouth of a character's face are not yet supported. It is useful only when you need to uniformly reduce the number of square polygons throughout.
5. Blender UV Editing :
Blender UV is the development of a 3d figure and is applied to a square-shaped texture image. It is a plan to adjust how to spread the surface of a 3d figure.
An object can only project a texture image onto the surface as if it were wearing clothes, only by referring to its UV development. Usually, each object has one UV map. For texture painting, UV must be created.
Unsurprisingly, Blender has very good support for UV editing. You can do a manual deployment, but there is also a powerful automatic deployment function called Smart UV Project. If you use Smart UV Project, it unfolds the development view as neatly as most people do with just a few clicks.
When manually creating UVs, if a seam is marked on the edge of a 3d figure in advance, the edge appears red. method used. You can also directly modify the coordinates in 2D after unfolding the UV development.
Even in 2D which modifies blender UV map, you can use almost all the tools you used in 3D space, such as move, rotate, zoom, and proportional editing.
6. Blender Shading :
Blender Material that gives color and texture to the completed 3d models is the process of application.
Each blender material is also a data block. Material data blocks use texture data blocks, and texture data blocks use image data blocks. If you draw something on an image in Blender (texture painting), you are modifying the image data block. If you move a node or connect or disconnect a new one, that's a modification of the material data block. To work comfortably, it's a good idea to turn on the Automatically Pack into .blend.
setting so that all images are always automatically included in the blender file. It is a strength of Blender that this setting exists. However, the image data block is unique, so changes are not saved even with the Save command. Even if you use the Save command if you close the file and open it again, the contents you have drawn or modified are gone, and only the image data block before modification remains.
So, when you modify an image, you must use the Save all images command or the Save dirty command. Both are the same command. If the image is included (packed) in the file, it exists in the form of a data block inside the blender file. If it is not included (packed), it exists in the form of a file outside the blender file. Blender also has several procedural textures. In general, Noise and Voronoi are often used.
Blender supports both Specular and Metallic materials. Furthermore, if you want to mix within one material, you can mix them.
Among the blender materials, a lens can be made with Glass BSDF or Refraction BSDF, but there is a problem the edges look black, and even if a decimal value smaller than 1 is used for IOR (Index of Refraction), the edges do not shine and look black. You might want to refer to an article about this problem, but it looks like you need some kind of script.
7. Blender Texture Painting :
In Blender, you can draw on 2D images with the brush tool, or draw on 3D objects. You can also draw directly on top. There are various tools such as Soften, Smear, Clone, and Fill.
The brush is pretty powerful. Brush tool properties include color, size, strength, as well as blending modeIt has various options such as Texture, Texture mask, UV Mask, and Curve.
The stroke options are also very powerful. You can draw with normal strokes, but you can also draw with dotted lines (Spacing), jitter (Jitter), or smooth strokes (Smooth stroke).
Graphics tablets are also well-supported. You can apply pen pressure to the desired option among the brushes Radius, Strength, Spacing, and Jitter. There is a pen pressure reflection button next to each option, and you can turn it on or off.
The sample color tool is the shortcut S. You can also decide whether to extract the color on the screen or the color on the texture. Just press S to designate the extracted color as the foreground color, and click while holding S to add that color to the Palette. Depending on whether you click on it, the result will be different.
The brushes color properties also include a Palette list, Accumulate, Alpha, and Gradient options. In the palette, you can organize by adding or removing colors as needed during creation.
Pattern textures that can be applied to brushes circulate a lot on the Internet. However, if you want to draw your own textures for brushes, such as snow, rain, dust, etc., you can draw them within Blender. You can create a new image data block, draw a texture to apply to the brush, and specify that the brush uses the image data block as a texture.
When you draw on an image in Blender, there is an option called Tiling on the brush. If you turn it on, brush strokes are automatically drawn on the opposite side if you draw outside the image in any direction, up, down, left, or right. So, even if the image is arranged in a pattern, it does not break at the boundary and becomes a piece that continues naturally. This is a special feature of blender brushes that Photoshop does not have.
However, there is no eraser tool. An indispensable tool for images with opacity (Alpha) is an eraser, but for some reason, it is not there. Instead, if you set the blending mode in the brush tool to Erase Alpha or Add Alpha, you can draw only the A (opacity) channel without touching the RGB channels.
If a PBR material is used, it will be a material composed of multiple image textures such as Diffuse, Metallic, Roughness, and Height. However, there is no way to draw all image textures at once. You can check the result by drawing on each image separately. If it is not necessarily a PBR material, but if it is a complex material made up of nodes, you can select one of the images that make up the material and draw on it.
8. Blender Rigging :
It is convenient to think of "Rig = Armature = skeleton". It's a skeleton job, hence the name Rig+ing=Rigging.
Blender Rigging allows 3d models to move, such as people, creatures, and robots, to take various poses and movements. To put it simply, put bones and joints inside the 3d model, and determine which part of the skin (surface) each bone will grab and pull. This is a linking task.
In Blender, an entire armature is an object, not individual bones. You can start rigging by adding an object called Armature. So, just like entering the editing mode of a mesh object and modifying a polygon, we use a very neat method of entering the editing mode of a skeleton object and modifying a bone. So, since each bone knows its "home" position in the skeleton, it is very easy to return the posture to its initial state.
Inside the skeleton, parent-child relationships between bones can all be set and released with shortcuts like normal objects, and the relationships appear as dotted lines, saving the effort of setting the top and bottom structures individually in the Outliner Editor. You do not have to do it. And when naming each bone, it is convenient to attach a suffix that distinguishes the left and right sides.
In Blender, Edit mode and Pose mode, which control the initial state of the skeleton, are separate, so you can initialize any number of poses or save various pose states in the Pose library.
Even if the posture is already set, in that state, you can slightly transform the skeleton, such as bone length or joint position, you can also draw point weights (Weight paint). Compared to Max, where once you grab the skin, you have to re-skin it when the joint position is wrong, Blender can adjust the center point position while adjusting it at any time in the later process.
Constraint also has many, but it is very powerful because other programs need to use plug-ins or scripts. Its conceptual clarity, in which complex results are implemented with simple functions, is also an advantage. Inverse kinematics is the most commonly used constraint.
Vertex Group and Mirror Modifier are very good when doing skinning that connects the surface to the skeleton. with X-axis symmetry When sculpting and preparing vertex groups with the same names as the bones on the left and right of the object, drawing the vertex weight twice when the left and right sides are the same is a waste of time.
Here, the aesthetics of shortcuts cannot be overlooked. In general, only two objects are used for rigging and skinning. One is a mesh object such as a person. the other is an Armature object. I often switch back and forth between these two, and the shortcuts in each are very similar. In mesh objects, Ctrl+Tab is weight paint mode, and Tab is edit mode. In Armature objects, Ctrl+Tab is Pose mode, and Tab is Edit mode.
Another thing is, if you Ctrl+click the bone you want to touch in the weight paint mode of the mesh object, you can go directly to the vertex group with the same bone name. It is a series of selecting bones and drawing point weights, selecting bones and drawing point weights. There is no need to struggle by searching for the dot group name in the Properties editor. However, the armature object must be prepared in advance in Pose mode.
When skinning starts, the 3d model object must be subordinated to the armature (Parent, Ctrl+P). Select one of the sub-options of Armature deforms from the menu. Then, vertex groups identical to the bone names are created in the object, and a modifier called Armature is also created. That way, vertices on the skin that belong to a vertex group follow the bone of the same name.
However, if you set up the armature well, you don't need to draw the vertex weights one by one. This is because if the bones are properly planted in the right place, you can plant the bones in the object at once with the command Parent with Automatic Weights. However, there are precautions when using Parent with Automatic Weights due to some bugs and performance limitations.
The command must be executed with the skeleton and 3d character object at the world origin. because of a bug It is a bug where the vertex weight distribution is very inaccurate if you try it a few meters away from the world origin. A single dot adheres to several bones.
Also, if the polygons of the 3d character object are very dense, only empty vertex weights are generated with the error Bone Heat Weighting: failed to find a solution for one or more bones and it fails. Usually, this error occurs when a single polygon is small, less than 1mm, or when a specific edge is too small and elongated. If you want to save the character's detail, it is wise to make the base mesh a large polygon of 1 cm or more and add fine details with the Multi-Resolution function.
Blender comes with an addon called Rigify. It is an addon that is used almost unconditionally when working properly on the skeleton. After setting up a special skeleton called Metarig, if you issue the Generate Rig command, a complete skeleton with convenient widgets for positioning is automatically created.
9. Blender Animation :
It is the work of breathing life into various 3d models so that they move according to time. The timeline is the main stage, and keyframes and graphs are the main materials. Blender itself began to be developed in animation studios, and developers are also developing animation features with particular care.
Blender Keyframes can be applied to attribute values of Blender objects. The work of adjusting the movement in detail is handled by the Graph Editor or Dope Sheet Editor. Of course, there are various interpolation methods to choose from.
From blender version 3, you can also draw 2D animations using Grease pencil objects. Finally, 3D graphics and 2D characters can move together. It contains all the tools necessary for actual animation production, from line thickness, color, and layers to transparencies (onion skinning).
If you turn on the Auto-Keyframe function, as soon as you move the object or change the property value, it is automatically saved as a keyframe in the current frame. For reference, the interpolation method to be used as the default can be specified in the Animation tab of Blender Preferences.
10. Blender Physics Simulation :
Physics simulation in Blender does not mean actual physical/engineering analysis simulation, but means showing physical effects graphically. Various real-world collisions, flows, and flutters caused by speed, gravity, and wind can be visually simulated.
Each object in Blender can take on one of several roles :
- Rigid body
- Soft body
- Blender Rigid bodies are literally used for hard objects such as wood and iron, and density and mass can be specified.
- Soft bodies are used for soft objects such as cushions, balls, and balloons, and can specify elasticity or internal air pressure values.
- Cloth is used for things like clothes and flags, and of course it is sensitive to wind, and the degree of stiffness can be specified.
- Fluids are used to make liquids such as honey and water, or gases such as steam, smoke, streams of fire, and explosions.
The rigid body option is very lightweight in terms of performance and can move hundreds or thousands of objects at once.
You can also add a force field into space. Power is also an object, and you are free to place it anywhere in space. There are various types of forces such as electric force, magnetic force, gravity, nuclear force, turbulence, wind, and elastic force. If you place the desired force in the right place, you can reproduce truly amazing physical movements.
You can have it use a standard unit system, such as meters or kilograms, or you can have it use other unit systems, such as inches or pounds.
- For reference, particle systems are affected by forces just like objects.
An object can have its own particle system. The blender particle system is divided into two types, Emitter and Hair. Using a particle system called
Blender Emitter, particles are emitted from the surface of an object. Initial speed, lifetime, force, etc. can be made to follow the laws of physics. If you set the initial velocity to 0, you can have it spread gently over the surface. The particle shape can be made to look like a path / specific object/objects in a specific collection, etc.
If you create hair or hair on the surface of an object with a particle system called Blender Hair, you can comb it with the Comb tool. Various shapes can be implemented, such as tied hair and blender-twisted hair.
When an object moves or collides, you can apply the laws of blender physics so that the fur or hair moves along with it. The tool itself is very light, so you don't have to worry about lag in the process.
11. Blender Compositing :
It is a post-processing job that finely adjusts the finished rendered image. Rendering is not the end in Blender. Render results can be composited and transformed without taking the rendered image to Photoshop.
And that's not all. Blender has a function called View Layer, and if you use this function, the rendered result comes out by dividing the image into several layers, like Photoshop's layers.
For example, in a scene with apples in a bowl on a desk, if each object is put into a different view layer and rendered, the result comes out with separate layers for the desk, bowl, and apple. So, you can turn apples green in the render result, or apply glare post-processing only to the bowl.
You can also turn on or off the Denoise or Freestyle functions for each layer. It can also be saved as a layered image file called EXR, similar to a PSD file.
There is also a powerful blender camera tracking function required for video compositing.